Wyatt Earp house in Tombstone AZ - it's located just as you enter town.
When visitors drive to Tombstone AZ, they usually arrive via Hwy. 80 from Interstate 10. As you come into the city limits, you'll come up the hill and see Boothill on the left. Next you'll come into the curve that brings you into town.
As you get through the curve, looking immediately to the left - you'll see this particular Wyatt Earp house in Tombstone. It has an iron fence surrounding a statue of Wyatt in the yard.
The statue is a creation of artist, Tim Trask, who lives in St. David, Arizona. You might notice the Gallery of Dreams in St. David when driving to Tombstone. It's a vivid blue building on the West side of the road. Tim is the Gallery's owner.
So, did Wyatt Earp live there in this house?
A sign in front explains that "Wyatt and Mattie are said to have lived on the Northeast corner of the intersection." That describes the lot where this Wyatt Earp house sits. It's regarded that Wyatt owned that lot (some say, that is).
And that he owned a few others in that vicinity. His brothers, Virgil and James also owned a few in that area of Fremont and 1st Street. In a way we hate to destroy what everyone wants to believe. But don't we want to know the truth? The real historical facts? We always do.
Authentic research, along with the use of critical thinking and documentation is always important in evaluation of facts. And facts are important in recognizing the truth.
Some local historians say Wyatt Earp never lived in that house on the Northeast corner of Fremont and 1st. They claim he actually owned it, but only rented it out to others for income. Some say he actually lived in a house behind this one. Others say he never owned this house at all. Some say he owned the property the house is on, but not the house that is currently there. What is the true story? Can we figure it out?
We've seen some related house pics on the internet. They show a totally different house claiming to be the house where Wyatt Earp lived in Tombstone. But you know how you cannot believe all you see on the internet!! Right?!
So let's investigate this! What's known about the real Wyatt Earp house in Tombstone Arizona?
Wyatt arrived in Tombstone AZ in early December 1879. His common law wife, Mattie, with him. We know from Allie Earp, Virgil's wife, that Wyatt Earp bought a house of their own in Tombstone. It's first discussed in the writings of Frank Waters.
Allie says when she and Virgil first got to town they rented a shack. None of the brothers had much money. They all got homes once they started working. That included the women, who worked sewing.
Allie said she wanted their own home, which happened. It was located at the Southwest corner of Fremont and 1st. She noted that when Morgan got to town, he moved in with them.
What caused later confusion is that Waters's book describes her saying "Wyatt and Mattie lived on the Northeast corner."1 That describes the Wyatt Earp house in Tombstone that visitors to town now go to see. The Northeast corner of Fremont and 1st.
But is that what Allie truly said?
Wyatt Earp researcher John D. Rose traces it to Waters's book having changes from the initial narrative. In the original Waters manuscript, he quoted Allie telling him "Our house was next door to Wyatt and Mattie's except for a vacant lot between."
Writer Allen Barra compared the first Waters manuscript, called Tombstone Travesty with his book, written 25 years later: The Earp Brothers of Tombstone. Barra also interviewed Frank Waters. The two accounts are based on Waters's interviews with Allie Earp.
Barra says the problem is "the two versions are in violent contradiction because Frank Waters invented the second.... because the real Allie Earp did not say the things about the Earp Brothers and Doc Holliday that Frank Waters wanted her to say."3
Rose relates another factor adding to the confusion. It helps support this current, general belief of the Wyatt Earp house in Tombstone's location.
John Gilchriese, a University of Arizona field historian and noted Wyatt Earp collector, published a map in the late 1960s. It shows a home on the Northeast corner of Fremont and 1st as owned by Wyatt Earp.2
But remember, according to Rose and Barra, the original Waters manuscript is more reliable. It was written close in time to his actual interview with Allie. It places Tombstone's Wyatt Earp house in the correct location. It was next to Virgil and Mattie's, on the South side of Fremont Street.
But wait, there's more supporting evidence.
Afterwards, half the town supported the Earp brothers' (and Doc Holliday) actions. But half didn't. Tombstone was divided on their methods of dealing with local ranchers known as The Cowboys. The Earp brothers became targets, when they weren't held to justice for killing the McLaury brothers and Billy Clanton. That is, in the opinion of many. They received threats on their lives. Their families were threatened.
Virgil Earp lost his position as U.S. Deputy Marshal, after being shot. His health status was risky for a time, but he recovered. They still had friends in the law, local government and professions. Wyatt was appointed to replace Virgil as U.S. Deputy Marshal.
Wyatt recruited friends for a posse to hunt down those who were out to get them. He got a Federal warrant to arrest law-breakers. He took his posse to Charleston and raided homes throughout, without finding any culprits. The population there wasn't thrilled with that event!
Then on March 18, 1882 Morgan Earp was killed in Campbell & Hatch's Saloon on Allen Street. Wyatt Earp was devastated, but livid. He was determined to avenge his two brothers.
Wyatt's posse roamed Southeastern Arizona, looking for those who attacked Virgil and killed Morgan. During his "Vendetta Ride" four men were killed. His brother Warren Earp rode with this posse. The Earp brothers had no earned income during this time. No doubt while planning his vengeance, Wyatt looked to source funds from somewhere. Apparently, that was Wyatt's Tombstone home and property.
On February 13, 1882 Wyatt and Mattie went to a local judge and Notary Public to write out a mortgage statement securing funds. Earp friend, James G. Howard, held the mortgage on Wyatt's home. Howard loaned Wyatt $365, plus interest of 2% per month.4
He received the funds in gold coin. Wyatt's home was collateral, on a promissory note. Wyatt had to repay in gold coin in three months, with no grace period. Particularly important related to the Tombstone Wyatt Earp house, was the description of Wyatt's home location in this mortgage document.4
The loan was secured with the land parcel in Tombstone, Cochise County, Arizona Territory. It described the exact location, to quote4 [bullet itemized only by this website]:
So we can see this legal document describes a house owned by Wyatt Earp. It states they lived there: Wyatt Earp and Mattie occupied this residence. It's on the same side of the street as Virgil Earp's house. That is, the South side of Fremont Street.
Still not convinced?
Now hang on, there's even more!
If Virgil's home occupied two lots, then Wyatt's home would have been on this overhead view below on lots numbered 5 and 6. If Virgil's home only occupied one lot, then Wyatt's home would have been on lots numbered 4 and 5. You see what we mean.
Wyatt's posse rode off. One man was dead, more to follow. Word got to the law in Cochise County. A posse formed by Sheriff Johnny Behan came after Wyatt's posse! A warrant was out to arrest Wyatt's posse for murdering Frank Stilwell, Wyatt's first revenge killing.
After Wyatt felt he'd accomplished what he could, he moved on. He left Arizona Territory about mid-April 1882, crossing into New Mexico. He didn't return until he was required to, when summoned to testify in court in 1926.8
Just as happens today (of course we know it - we've made payments each year!), Wyatt owed property taxes to Cochise County. But he left Tombstone, he left Cochise County, and he left Arizona. In 1882 his taxes were due.
Did Wyatt pay his property taxes that were due to Cochise County in 1882?
Cochise County Recorder Christine Rhodes located the records for that year! Listed under the "Delinquent Tax Roll" for that year is the listing for the Earp Brothers. It states that taxes on Lots 1, 2, 3 and 4, Block M, with 2 frame houses were overdue.2 Another confirmation of the Earp brothers' ownership of the homes on the South side of Fremont Street.
In fact it's a very important document. Because it doesn't mention any taxes due on lots on the North side of Fremont Street. That would be Block V. Yes, some claim Wyatt also owned property on the North side, but we haven't seen evidence yet, as there is for the South side.
With their poor financial condition as they left Arizona in 1882, it's no wonder the Earps didn't have funds to pay their taxes.
In early 1884 Tombstone's mines were failing. Water was flooding in, and causing many problems. This reverberated through town. Mining companies let workers go, affecting local businesses. Those miners kept on had drastic pay cuts. The miners went on strike. Tombstone's economy suffered. In turn the local bank, Hudson & Co. was hurting.
Wyatt had an account at this bank for his use during his posse days. His supporters, including his prior employer, Wells Fargo, arranged this. Some evidence shows that Wyatt accessed a little over $500 from the account during that time.
Now with the bank in danger of collapse, there was concern regarding the mortgage note that Wyatt never repaid. It's difficult to trace, but researcher John Rose accessed a rare clipping from the Tombstone Epitaph that shows Wyatt Earp, and Mattie, were sent a summons to appear.
The summons was a judgment "to serve the payment of said note on said property in the City of Tombstone, Cochise County..."2 It was now worrisome, as the bank was headed for trouble, that Wyatt might not be held accountable for this loan.
It could be that his father, doing well in California, bailed him out, so to speak. We see that Nicholas P. Earp paid taxes on property in Cochise County in late 1885. It seems credible that he took over Wyatt's foreclosing property.
In doing a little research on this particular house, real estate records state it wasn't in existence in the 1800s. According to the realty websites Trulia and Realtor.com, it was built in 1900.
Someone we spoke with who works construction is quite skeptical of this home being that of Wyatt. He stated he'd like to examine the nails used. That would specifically confirm when it wasn't built.
And as we said, only a few specific historians say this house on Fremont Street was the home of Wyatt & Mattie - We Think Not!
Over the years a few different people owned this north side of Fremont Street "Wyatt Earp house" in Tombstone AZ. It was previously a gift shop. One time it was a bed and breakfast, we think.
Now this Wyatt Earp house sits there to look at. It's been closed since after Tombstone's Wyatt Earp Days of 2013.7 That explanatory sign out front. If you look it up on Google, go to the website, it says it's a fine-art gallery in the VERY last paragraph! The remaining text has nothing to do with the house!! Possibly you can tour the inside, if able to make contact for an appointment.
It's a nice-looking little place. And the statue sculpture by Tim Trask is quite pleasing. But is it historically accurate? Some locals feel they've researched the history, and believe that Wyatt did own this lot and the home on it, as well.5-6
And sadly, there's a not very pretty vacant lot, with billboards, in the place where the true Wyatt Earp house in Tombstone actually stood. Virgil's home was there quite a while, but burnt down in 1998.9 Quite a tragic loss. Some wood from the burn-out was salvaged, stored for planned incorporation into the bed and breakfast that stands on the same lot.
We believe in critical thinking, with research to get to the facts as best you can. That's what we've tried to do here. We love Tombstone, and its history. So we hope you'll appreciate our help in finding out where Wyatt Earp really lived. Take it for what it's worth to you!
Give us your input below if you so wish. We'd love to hear your thoughts, feelings or other documentation! Anything that verifies the truth of this north side of Fremont Street Wyatt Earp house in Tombstone AZ!
1 Waters, F. (1960). The Earp brothers of Tombstone: The story of Mrs. Virgil Earp. New York: C.N. Potter In. Bison Book edition.
2 Rose, J.D. (2012-2018). Wyatt Earp's Tombstone homesite discovered. Retrieved from www.wyattearpexplorers.com/wyatts-house.html
3 Barra, A. (2002-2018) On Jim Groom’s "Frank Waters: Maligned or misunderstood." Retrieved from www.tombstonehistoryarchives.com/
4 Rose, J.D. (n.d.) Wyatt Earp explorers. Retrieved from www.wyattearpexplorers.com/mortgage.html
5 Trimble, M. (2017, September 4). Did Wyatt Earp live in the house where the statue stands at the corner of Fremont and First Streets? Retrieved from truewestmagazine.com/wyatt-earp-house/
6 Allen, P. (2003, July 5). Wyatt Earp house near ‘wicked’ Allen Street in Tombstone is for sale. Tucson Citizen. Retrieved from tucsoncitizen.com/morgue2/2003/07/05/11298-wyatt-earp-house-near-wicked-allen-street-in-tombstone-is-for-sale/
7 Vogtritter, A. (2013). Wyatt Earp house, gallery will close this weekend. Retrieved from nbc12.com/story/21984870/wyatt-earp-house-gallery-will-close-this-weekend
8 Potter, P. (2018, Oct. 3). Jack Crabtree soured on Annie and baby. Wild West Magazine. Retrieved from historynet.com/jack-crabtree-soured-annie-baby.htm
9 More, D. (2015). Virgil's Corner History. Retrieved from virgilscorner.com/pages/history.html