Frederick Brunckow was the first mining man in the Tombstone area. He dug a silver mining shaft Southwest of today's Tombstone town. But it met a bad end. Brunckow and most of his team were killed.1 Read the Brunckow Mine History.
In 1800s Arizona history, the area surrounding Tombstone was well-known for Apache worries. Brunckow's silver strike was notable in mining circles. But few risked going into the area. Apache bands raided soldier troops, travelers, some other tribes and settlements.
Few did mining exploration. They'd find mineral evidence, then back off because of Apache fears. Some met their death.
This anxiety continued on settlers' minds for some time. Yet they eventually came to Tombstone. The settlement itself provided some protection.
Tombstone Arizona took a more well-known historic turn when this man arrived at nearby Camp Huachuca. Ed Schieffelin shadowed a military crew tracking raiding Apaches.
Ed had previous mining experience. He aimed to eyeball rock conditions for minerals. He enjoyed the military protection, yet felt they corralled his freedom to search the area.1
About July 1877, Schieffelin started his own treks through these Chihuahuan Desert hills. That's when a soldier supposedly said:
when you're searching the desert for mining spots -
you won't find silver or gold, but instead...
"...you'll find your Tombstone!"
He remembered that! But still went on his own, finding silver-promoting geology about 12 miles East of the Brunckow mine. On August 1, 1877 he filed his first claim for his "Tombstone" mine. Then two more called Graveyard No. 1 and Graveyard No. 2.1
How about Schieffelin's sense of humor?
Find these Tombstone Arizona history via Claims on the Mining Map!
Ed needed help working his mines. He enlisted his brother Albert. Together they recruited Richard Gird.1 All three were instrumental in getting Tombstone started.
D.S. Chamberlain had two wells near town. He offered cart water to miners for a better deal. His wells were unreliable, especially in dry times of the year.1
Alpheus Lewis was a character in Tombstone Arizona history. He filed the Richmond townsite claim in early 1879, southwest of today's town. Lewis purchased a nearby spring, planning to pump water from it, but it never happened.1
The Girard Gold and Silver Mining Company had its own water supply. The talk of the town, started on February 11, 1882! It became a source for the Tombstone Water Company.
Historically, miners looking for work generally settled on the West side: Gird Camp, or called Upper Town. (Today locals still refer to town as "Uptown.") New folks often used a tent or lean-to. But some built adobe houses right off.
The first merchant, John B. Allen, opened a store and boarding-house. In a wood-framed/tent-like structure. Other businesses sprung up. Restaurants were necessities; a butcher shop opened.
Mining brothers Samuel and Charles Calhoun bought 320 acres called "Goose Flats." This land was easy-going for pulling wagons up to their Mountain Maid claim. A friend of Richard Gird, Thomas J. Bidwell arranged 80% of the rights to Goose Flats in March 1879. The Calhouns agreed contingent on a town-site survey for a community.
James S. Clark and Charles Cook, were partners in San Francisco real estate. Interested in mining and investment. That brought them to Tombstone Arizona in March 1879. Historical timing!
The Tombstone Townsite Company and Clark, Palmer & Company had a goal: Tombstone's town as a financial project. They hired a surveyor, establishing a grid street pattern. They named the main business road Allen Street, after Tombstone Territory's first merchant.
Then filed the Townsite claim in the U.S. Land Office. Official April 22, 1879, at the Pima County Recorder's Office, as New Tombstone. Nearby Richmond vied for the local Post Office, but instead awarded to "New Tombstone". Autumn brought Justice of the Peace co-appointments: Michael Gray & Thomas J. Bidwell.
Town leaders petitioned for town incorporation. They considered changing the name. But kept it Tombstone, since many business references were already associated that way.
Pima County granted the petition. Then interim elections were held November 24, 1879:
The first municipal election results on January 6, 1880:
With a government in place, local laws, taxes and business licenses could be achieved. Some notable firsts:2
The new 1880s decade had Tombstone booming. Now a real city, more residents every day. Multiple enterprises fulfilled needs. Within town you'd find:6
Plentiful businesses were around town. Some supplied mining needs. Others catered to employees' off-hours desires. Still others met requirements of ranchers in surrounding Tombstone Territory, when in town.
Lodging was always needed. Ranchers, Cow-boys and distant miners bought supplies, arranged cattle deals, accomplished banking and other errands. Often ending the day with a meal, some Gambling, saloon visits, and perhaps a visit to the Red Light District.
Other travelers passed through, or visited, needing a place to stay:1
Read More on Tombstone's Historic Hotels>
In Tombstone's history, Saloons Were Popular. Miners needed release after their grueling day's work. Ranging from grubby little counters to deluxe establishments. Some provided rooms for general meetings, get-togethers, even church services (before chapel construction).
The earliest documented appeared in 1879:
By the end of 1880 about 33 saloons operated in town, give or take a few!
Because of mining's draw, most of the town's population were men. Many fairly young, usually single, and full of anxious energy in their off-hours. Plus the "perpetual bachelors" needing to express their manhood. All looking to vent these energies.
In Tombstone Arizona history, women and children had more difficulty finding diversions. With effort, they found some.
Clara Spalding Brown moved from San Diego to Tombstone with her husband. He had silver mining interests. She regularly corresponded to the San Diego Daily Union. Her published letters give invaluable detail of women's life in Tombstone Arizona history. Her July 7, 1880 letter explained:4
There were venues for leisure and civic promotion. Some available to women. Some catered to married couples. Others provided for meeting suitable people for possible courtships.
CATHOLICS - Families in town wanted to express their religious preferences. People felt this brought civilization to their community. They wanted to attend services with their families, as they'd done before coming to this "Wild West" town.
Practicing their Catholic faith was important to many Irish people in town. The Mexican population felt the same. The Bishop in Tucson sent a traveling priest to Tombstone by 1879. When in town, he arranged to say Mass in various homes or vacant rooms in saloons or halls.1
Nellie Cashman helped start a building fund for a church. Sacred Heart Catholic Church has undergone some renovations through Tombstone's history. It's still a historic building that can be visited today.
METHODISTS1,3 - J.P. McIntyre came to Tombstone in early 1880 and gathered a congregation. He began a Sunday school, incorporated the Tombstone Methodist Church, and formed the board of trustees.
On July 3, 1881 Pastor McIntyre was officially appointed as Tombstone's Methodist minister. He'd worked hard to start the congregation, including raising funds to build a chapel.
PRESBYTERIANS1,3 - In mid 1880 James Woods came to town by request of the Board of Home Missions. He was a minister, with mining experience in California. So a logical choice to start a congregation in Tombstone. Upon arrival he invited people to a service.
A month later he spread the word he'd be forming an official congregation. Then started building a church. This historical building still stands today, on 4th Street, north of Fremont. Completed by the end of 1880, at which time he moved on.
With families, come children. Schools are needed. Tombstone parents were concerned for their children's education.
The first school opened in February 1880. It was tiny, with a dirt floor. The kids were crammed in. Only a tiny blackboard on the wall. The teacher, irritated at the circumstances, quit after just two months.
In June 1880 another school opened in a room at 6th and Fremont Streets. 25 kids started. More and more came, until 91 were crammed into a room barely fitting them.
Finally the Territorial Superintendent of Public Schools approved forming a school district. Funds came to build a proper school on a donated 4th Street lot. Finished at the beginning of 1881. But money ran out, so none for desks or other needs.
It had 2 school rooms. Wood planks sufficed as seats and desks. Only 80 pupils were generally in attendance.
The Territorial Superintendent's brother noticed. He donated his own money, purchasing desks and school books. It primed the school board to give more support. Attendance increased, until the school abounded with over 130 students. Two local halls were rented as school rooms.
By autumn 1882, five teachers taught kids from six to eighteen. Another schoolhouse was built in 1883. A two story wooden structure on 7th Street - between Fremont and Allen.1 In looking over Tombstone's history, that area is still school property today (but the main old school is for sale!).
In the 1800s European Immigrants went Westward in America. Many to Tombstone Arizona. The Irish were a good percentage of Tombstone's population. Some recent immigrants, others second generation. Most others in Tombstone were from Germany, Scandinavia, and Great Britain.
Jews immigrated to escape religious persecution in Eastern Europe. Some went West for opportunity. Some Jewish immigrants settled in Tombstone.
The Mexican population was already in Tombstone, Arizona Territory. It had been part of Mexico, in the State of Sonora. It was ceded to Arizona with the Gadsden Purchase.
The Chinese population lived in part of town locals named "Hop Town." Initially recruited to the U.S. for railroad work. Many came of their own accord for varied work opportunities.1
Entering 1881, Tombstone had over 4,000 people living in town. (Under half that today!) The mines produced well, people had cash, merchants did a good business, homes were being built! A mining boom-town: that word spread throughout the country.
Therefore, local leaders promoted creation of a new county. On February 21, 1881 Arizona Territory governing body authorized a charter creating Cochise County. From the Eastern section of Pima County.
They named Tombstone the County Seat.1 Officials and financing were needed. Governor John C. Fremont began the process:1
It seemed all was going well. People continued flowing into town.
Tombstone Arizona history recounts multiple fires. Consider accelerating circumstances:
Tombstone Arizona suffered two horrifying fires in their history. Plus other fires that affected the town and its people.
Throughout the old West, people flowed into other towns like Tombstone. Similar conditions promoted chances for dreadful fires. And they did occur.
After each fire devastation, Tombstone rebuilt. The people were determined to keep this little town alive!
With Tombstone's appointment as County Seat of the new Cochise County, the Board of Supervisors wanted a proper county courthouse. They decided to build at the Southwest corner of Toughnut & 3rd Streets.
They advertised for sealed bids, receiving seven. They chose the second highest: $27,456! Tombstone Undertaker, Andrew J. Ritter, received the contract. A friend of County Supervisor Milton Joyce (Oriental Saloon owner), who strongly pushed building the Courthouse.
Architect Frank Walker drew the Courthouse plans. The cornerstone was ceremoniously placed on August 11, 1882. And completed January 1883, over budget at $43,000!
No longer used as a courthouse. [For one thing, Tombstone is no longer the County Seat.] Tour this historic Tombstone building today! Now it's Tombstone Courthouse State Historic Park.
In October 1882 bids opened to build a City Hall and jail, on the site of the burnt out Recorder's Office. Also designed by Frank Walker, budgeted for $10,000.
Today see it when entering town. An unmistakable, imposing brick building. Serving as the local Marshal's Office. Look for it on the South side of Fremont Street.
With the 1800s silver mining population draw, stockmen came to Tombstone establishing ranches.
Ranchers wanted wranglers with cattle experience. Not all coming here were out for good, honest work. Some were more interested in rustling cattle, rather than investing in raising them. Newspapers applied the term "cow-boys" to them.
That included those who regularly came to Tombstone, for supplies and entertainment. You may have heard of the most notorious names: Johnny Ringo, Curly Bill, Ike Clanton, the McLaury Brothers.
Tombstone has a shallow, fairly strong water table. This was realized when mine shafts began flooding. This problem's solution was water pumps. In Tombstone Arizona's history by mid 1885, they were operating in town. This fix struck optimism in town!
But in Spring 1886 a vast fire shut down the Grand Central, affecting the shaft and pump. Then the markets interfered with city economics. Silver's value plummeted. Half the camp miners were let go by summer's end, 1886.
Mine management began decreasing worker pay from $4/day to $3/day. The Miners' Union went on strike.1
On May 10, 1884, the Hudson Bank in Tucson shut down. Tombstone's branch in the Vizina & Cook Building shut, when the teller went to Tucson to make inquiries. Meanwhile, striking miners gathered at the door anxious to access their accounts. Scuttlebutt began: The clerk ran off with their money!
The sheriff stepped in, preventing violence. But miners did lose funds because Hudson Bank failed. Not from teller embezzlement! The miners' strike persisted. Finally on September 1, 1884 the miners accepted the $3 daily pay, ending the strike.
In May 1887, the Grand Central Mining Company formed. Their goal was repairing and reopening the Grand Central Mine.
A Mother Nature set-back happened May 3, 1887. Centered in Sonora, Mexico, an earthquake majorly affected Tombstone and surrounding areas. The shaking lasted about 30 seconds. Tombstone repaired quickly. Things looked up for the town. Business vacancies were few, and housing was full.
But in 1890, silver pricing plummeted again. Then a near-fatal blow hit at the end of Christmas day 1891. Shortly after midnight, the night sky flared around the Contention Mine. The mine hoist was on fire, and spreading. Fire companies responded. Citizens tried helping. The one available water pipe was frozen. The fire eventually burned out. The entire mine was demolished.
Contention management stopped all mining efforts. Of two major Tombstone mines, local employers: one was teetering along, the other now totally gone. Independent miners, with their own claims, got by.
Silver's price rendered the town just enough for support. But most businesses had gone. With this economic situation, only two newspapers now survived: The Epitaph and the Prospector.
In 1890, Tombstone's population dwindled to 1,800 - close to today's! With few businesses and limited customers, city tax support declined.
In December 1893 The Bank of Tombstone closed. They transferred assets to the other local bank, The Tombstone Bank. The town's commercial prospects looked more dire each year. Only 649 people remained in Tombstone by 1900!
Responsible city representatives determined to keep the town alive. We're still here, after all! So something worked.
Move on to see what happened in Tombstone Arizona History in the 1900s: getting our reputation as the "Town Too Tough to Die"
1 Bailey, L.R. (2004). Tombstone, Arizona: "Too tough to die" The rise, fall, and resurrection of a silver camp; 1878 to 1990. Tucson, AZ: Westernlore Press. A prime general resource for all unmarked data.
2 Daily Nugget (1880, Dec. 2) Tombstone, Arizona.
3 Parsons, G.W. (1996). A tenderfoot in Tombstone. The private journal of George Whitwell Parsons: The turbulent years, 1880-82. Ed. L.R. Bailey. Tucson, AZ: Westernlore Press.
4 Bailey, L.R. editor (1998). Tombstone from a woman's point of view: The correspondence of Clara Spalding Brown July 7, 1880 to November 14, 1882. Tucson AZ: Westernlore Press.
8 Ragsdale Jr., J.W. (2010). Values in transition: The Chiricahua Apache from 1886-1914. University of Oklahoma College of Law Digital Commons: American Indian Law Review. Retrieved from digitalcommons.law.ou.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1095&context=ailr
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